Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow)
2021, 22(1): 21-31
ROLE OF TRACE ELEMENTS DURING PREGNANCY
E.A. Muzyko1, L.I. Laschenova1, G.A. Tkacheva2, V.N. Perfilova1
1 Volgograd State Medical University, Pavshikh Bortsov Sq., Volgograd, 400131, Russian Federation
2 Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University, 27, V.I. Lenina avenue, Volgograd, 400066, Russian Federation
ABSTRACT. Trace elements take part in the implementation of the most important metabolic processes of the body. Violation of trace element homeostasis during pregnancy leads to the formation of various pathologies. Deficiency of zinc, manganese, selenium and cobalt, high or low copper content in the blood of a pregnant woman increases the risk of developing preeclampsia, anemia and miscarriages. А low boron content is observed with gestational diabetes mellitus and chronic arterial hypertension in pregnant women. Cobalt deficiency is associated with an increased risk of premature birth, the development of iron deficiency anemia, and arterial hypertension during gestation. A sufficient amount of molybdenum is necessary for the onset of pregnancy, its lack leads to a change in carbohydrate metabolism, the formation of xanthine stones, the occurrence of nausea, anemia and caries in pregnant women. Nickel deficiency leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia and impairment of reproductive function, and its excess can contribute to the formation of gestational diabetes mellitus. The addition of trivalent chromium to the diet of women with polycystic ovary syndrome increases the likelihood of pregnancy, and an excess of its hexavalent form positively correlates with the risk of developing preeclampsia and premature rupture of membranes. The increased consumption of Ni, Cr6+ and F has an adverse effect on the health of the pregnant woman. To fully understand the role of trace elements in ensuring maternal health and the proper development of the fetus, further studies of their concentrations and control values in amniotic fluid, maternal serum and umbilical cord blood during pregnancy are needed to determine the optimal level of supplementation and to quickly diagnose maternal and embryonic mineral metabolic disorders.
KEYWORDS: trace elements, pregnancy, preeclampsia, premature birth, gestational diabetes mellitus.Corresponding author: E.A. Muzyko E-mail: email@example.com