Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow)
2016, 17(4): 11-15
HUMAN NEEDS FOR ZINC AND ITS SOURCES (REVIEW)
Orenburg State University, Pobedy ave., 13, Orenburg 460018, Russia
ABSTRACT. The article provides an overview of published data on the vital trace element zinc, its content in the biosphere, main functions in human body and the daily requirements. Zinc has a greatest ability to accumulate in plants. In turn, plants take zinc from soils where its content varies from 10 to 30 mg/kg in calcareous soils and from 40 to 60 mg/kg in acid soils. Zinc is essential for all vital processes in the human body. It is a part of more than 300 enzymes; it participates in the processes of growth, division and differentiation of cells. Zinc deficiency in the body leads to colds and infectious diseases, allergies, hair loss, chronic fatigue, infertility, impotence. Zinc deficiency (hypozincosis) of natural origin occurs in Portugal, Iran, Egypt, Turkey, Panama and some other countries. It is also found among the population of Russia. Also, the reasons for the low zinc in the body are malnutrition, lack of meat, fish, seafood and so on. Residents of regions with low zinc content in soil, food and drinking water should consume various foods rich of zinc. People get zinc mainly from food, medicines and food supplements. Zinc is found in all food groups. Besides meat and fish, high amounts of zinc are detected in mushrooms, beans, germinated wheat, bran, sunflower seeds and pumpkin (130–202 mg/kg dry matter). Recommended daily consumption of zinc in Russia, USA and EU countries ranges from 7.2 to 15 mg. For residents of Russia optimal intensity of zinc consumption is 12 mg/day for adults and 4.6 mg/day for children, given that 0.1 mg of zinc is supplied from the inhaled air.
KEYWORDS: zinc, trace element, biosphere, level of consumption, food, morbidity.Corresponding author: E.V. Salnikova; E-mail: email@example.com