V.V. Grabeklis 1, O.V. Delyukina 2, S.A. Savko 3
1 Lomonosov Moscow State
st. Leninskiye Gory, 1, building 1, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation
Beringov proezd, 3, Moscow, 129343, Russian Federation
Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University),
Trubetskaya str., d. 8, p. 2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
ABSTRACT. The gut microbiota is an important functional component of the gastrointestinal tract. It consists of a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses, which are actively involved in the digestive process, synthesis of vitamins and amino acids and in the body's defense against pathogens. The impact of macro- and trace elements on the composition and functions of the intestinal microbiota is an important area of research in the field of microbiology and immunology. It has been shown that certain micronutrients can disrupt the quantitative and qualitative composition of intestinal commensals, modulating the development of dysbiotic and dyspeptic disorders, as well as immunologic and metabolic changes in other body systems. Studies in this area can help to understand the mechanisms of interaction between trace elements and intestinal microbiota, as well as to develop new methods of prevention and treatment of diseases associated with disorders of the composition and functions of the intestinal microbiota.
The aim of this work is to analyze the literature data regarding the interaction of essential elements (Zn, Se, Ca, Mg, Fe) and bacterial component of gut microbiota. The materials were searched in Russian and English in the following scientific reference databases: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, eLIBRARY. A review of studies examining the influence of essential elements on the population composition of obligate intestinal commensals and the role of microbial composition in the regulation of the assimilation of these metals was carried out. It was shown that trace elements and macronutrients can be considered as prebiotics to modulate the gut microbiota, which in turn may also be a useful tool for maintaining optimal elemental homeostasis.
KEYWORDS: gut microbiota, trace elements, essential elements, dysbacteriosis, diet.