Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow)
2019, 20(4): 14-23
ESSENTIAL TRACE AND ULTRA TRACE ELEMENTS IN NUTRITION OF VEGETARIANS AND VEGANS. PART 1. IRON, ZINC, COPPER, MANGANESE
A.V. Galchenko1,2, A.M. Nazarova1
1 Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety, Ust'inskiy Proezd Str. 2/14, 109240, Moscow, Russia
2 Peoples` Friendship University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya str. 6, 117198, Moscow, Russia
ABSTRACT. Essential trace and ultra trace elements are absolutely important components of food. They are included in structure and are cofactors of a huge variety of proteins. With the deficit of one or several of them, the vital processes of the organism are significantly disturbed, the risks of many diseases increase, growth and reproduction become impossible. The unequal distribution of essential trace and ultra trace elements in food increases the risk of their deficiency in those who exclude certain foods from the diet. Vegans consume large amounts of iron, but iron from plant sources has a low bioavailability. Plant foods also contain iron absorption inhibitors such as phytic acid. As a result, vegans are more likely to be at risk of iron deficiency anaemia if compared with omnivores. Zinc deficiency is an extremely common condition. Probably, a shortage of zinc is found in half of the world's population. In vegans, the risk of zinc deficiency is further increased by the action of phytates. The main sources of copper, chromium and manganese are plant products, vegetarians and vegans don`t seem to be at risk of deficiency of these elements.
KEYWORDS: vegetarian, vegan, trace elements, iron, zinc, copper, manganese.Corresponding author: A.V. Galchenko Е-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org