Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow)
2018, 19(2): 3-11
IODINE: THE BIOLOGICAL ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE FOR MEDICAL PRACTICE
RUDN University, Miklukho-Maklay St., 10/2, Moscow, 117198, Russia; ANO «Centre for Biotic Medicine», Zemlyanoy Val St. 46, Moscow 105064, Russia
ABSTRACT. The article considers data accumulated to date on the participation of iodine in physiological processes, its metabolism, routes and volumes of entering to the body, relation to various diseases, medical applications. Iodine refers to essential elements; it affects the exchange of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and also controls the balance of synthesis and catabolism in the body. The optimal daily requirement of an adult in iodine is 150 μg/day, during pregnancy and lactation 250 μg/day, in children 50–100 μg/day. The importance of iodine for growth and development of the organism predetermines the presence of rigid mechanisms of regulating its intake, distribution and homeostasis. Transport of iodine in the body is provided by proteins NIS, CFTR, pendrin and chloride channels. Most of the assimilated iodine is used for the production of thyroid hormones. This process is provided by enzymatic systems of TPO, Duox2 and DEHAL1 and is regulated by TSH and intracellular calcium. Iodine deficiency and associated hypothyroidism are currently registered in all age groups. The cause of its development is mainly the inadequate dietary intake of iodine. There are also genetic diseases that affect iodine metabolism. In epidemiological studies, the indicator of adequate provision of the body with iodine in humans is the median of ioduria of 100–300 μg/l. It is also shown that in order to assess the individual provision of iodine, its determination in hair can be used. Determination of human provision with iodine by urinalysis and hair analysis is an important test for early detection of risk or the presence of iodine deficiency disorders.
KEYWORDS: essential trace elements, iodine, biological role, metabolismCorresponding author: M.G. Skalnaya E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org