Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow)
2021, 22(4): 03-13
DIETARY SALT IN THE WHIRL OF NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE, PUBLIC HEALTH AND FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY
Institute for Research and Development of the Sustainable Ecosystems (IRES), Srebrnjak 59, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
ABSTRACT. Background. The story about publishing a novelty in nutritional sciences is presented. Short-term biological indicator of urinary Na and K excretion is generally used to assess Na and K dietary exposure. In this study, we used the long-term biological indicator tissue of hair to assess Na and K nutritional status. Methods. Hair Na and K were analyzed in 1073 healthy white adult Caucasians [734 women (♀) and 339 men (♂)] with the ICP MS. The log transformed data were analyzed with median derivatives bioassay. Results. The median values (µg∙g1) were ♀Na 254 and ♂Na 371, and ♀K 74.3 and ♂K 143), respectively. The linear (adequate) ranges of the sigmoid saturation curve ranges for sodium were ♀Na 55.6–1307 and ♂Na 84.0–1450, whereas these ranges for potassium were ♀K 18.9–46.7 and ♂K 25.8–107.9. The strict homeostatic control of whole blood K and Na renders them unsuitable for assessing nutritional status. The potassium to sodium ratio (K/Na) in women appears stable across the sigmoid linear segment range, contrary to the constantly increasing of K/Na ratio in men. Conclusions. The results suggest how hair Na concentration should not be below 55.6 and 84.0 or above 1307 and 1450 µg∙g1 in women and men, respectively. Similarly, hair potassium concentrations should be not below 18.0 and 25.8 and higher than 46.7 and 107.9 in women and men, respectively. Hair K/Na ratio should stay around 0.600 in men and 0.400 in women. Current general population dietary sodium exposure does not warranted for the general population dietary salt restriction; individual precision medicine is required.
KEYWORDS: potassium, sodium, hair, whole blood, nutritional status, dietary intake.Corresponding author: Berislav Momčilović E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org