Trace Elements in Medicine (Moscow)
2021, 22(3): 15-26
IMBALANCE OF TRACE ELEMENTS DURING PREGNANCY AS A FACTOR OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PATHOLOGIES IN CHILDREN
E.A. Muzyko1, L.I. Laschenova1, G.A. Tkacheva2, V.N. Perfilova1
1 Volgograd State Medical University, 1, Pavshikh Bortsov Sq., Volgograd, 400131, Russian Federation
2 Volgograd State Socio-Pedagogical University, 27, V.I. Lenina avenue, Volgograd, 400066, Russian Federation
ABSTRACT. Excess or insufficient intake of trace elements during gestation leads to the formation of not only various complications of pregnancy in the mother, but also negatively affects the developing child. Epigenetic modifications of fetal DNA, hormonal changes, increased oxidative processes with a simultaneous decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes due trace elements imbalance during pregnancy are the main causes of abnormalities in children at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis. Zinc deficiency during gestation can lead to growth restriction in infants, the formation of congenital malformations, and the development of perinatal encephalopathy. A high concentration of copper in maternal serum causes low birth weight and small head circumference at birth in newborns. The lack of this microelement leads to abnormalities of the brain and heart of the embryos. Excess and deficiency of manganese during pregnancy cause intrauterine fetal growth restriction, impaired mental and psychomotor development in children in postnatal ontogenesis. Boron deficiency causes impaired cell differentiation in the early stages of embryogenesis, and its excessive intake into the body of a pregnant woman contributes to weight loss and growth loss in newborns. A low level of selenium, nickel and molybdenum in the mother is associated with the formation of malformations of the face, jaws and teeth in the children, defects in the neural tube of the fetus, which can manifest as anencephaly and spina bifida. Children born to mothers with a lack of selenium have low levels of psychomotor development. Excessive con-sumption of nickel, fluoride and hexavalent chromium during pregnancy has a teratogenic effect. An increase in the chromium content in the urine of pregnant women correlates with a decrease in the anthropometric parameters of the fetus, fluoride - with low intelligence and the development of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in children aged 6-12 years. Therefore, the identification and timely correction of trace elements imbalance during pregnancy is important for maintaining the health of the child in the coming and remote periods of life.
KEYWORDS: trace elements, pregnancy, intrauterine growth restriction, low birth weight, congenital pathologies, neurological and mental disorders in children.* Corresponding author: E.A. Muzyko E-mail: email@example.com